Visualize high-dimensional dataset in a 2D Chart.

In this post, I'll use a well known dataset MINIST handwritten. There are 70,000 images, each image in this dataset is of size 28x28.

First, import the libraries we are going to use.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns

from sklearn import datasets
from sklearn import manifold

%matplotlib inline

I'm using matplotlib and seaborn for visualization. numpy and pandas to handle numerical arrays and dataframe. I'm also use scikit-learn to get the data and perform t-SNE.

Download the dataset

data = datasets.fetch_openml('mnist_784', version=1, return_X_y=True)
pixel_values, targets = data
targets = targets.astype(int)


(70000, 784)

The dataset downloaded has 70,000 records, each record has 784 columns.

Let's plot an image to see what does it look like

image = pixel_values[0, :].reshape(28, 28)
plt.imshow(image, cmap='gray')

The image in the dataset has size 768, so I need convert it to 28x28.

Now the importance part, compute t-SNE

tsne = manifold.TSNE(n_components=2, random_state=42)
transformed_data = tsne.fit_transform(pixel_values[:6000, :])


(6000, 2)

In this example, I using only 6000 rows, and reduce the columns from 768 to 2. Enough for plotting the data to 2D chart.

Let's visualize the transformed dataset

tsne_df = pd.DataFrame(np.column_stack((transformed_data, targets[:6000])), columns=['x', 'y', 'targets'])
tsne_df.loc[:, 'targets'] = tsne_df.targets.astype(int)

grid = sns.FacetGrid(tsne_df, hue='targets', height=8), 'x', 'y').add_legend()

This is one way to visualize dataset. By plotting the dataset in the chart, we can see that, the number 0 and 6 are distinguishable easily. The number 4 and 9 are harder to distinguish.